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See what's new with book lending at the Internet Archive. Search icon An illustration of a magnifying glass. User icon An illustration of a person's head and chest. Sign up Log in. Web icon An illustration of a computer application window Wayback Machine Texts icon An illustration of an open book.

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Audio Software icon An illustration of a 3. Software Images icon An illustration of two photographs. Images Donate icon An illustration of a heart shape Donate Ellipses icon An illustration of text ellipses. Full text of " Louisville daily journal Louisville, Ky. Pettengill 8c Co. II he jen I n M iidav, tho Ihh. MIO N I. N'gw Toki, AiifilS. Sui-erintcBilf at.

O V and aft r U tineadm. St pi, mUr 6. Davi l. Nrw I V. And arrive atCraw ford-ville Nnrxerv l. Id" T bV. Bd fr. Mad. Caaolry l-rada. Twine, Wiektng, Matcbee. E For the Second Regiment D. V g t I aia now reecivii.

Thankfnl for fatore al- ready hest -wed.AcCession No. Title and Subtitle 5. First Remedial Action 7. Author s 8. Performing Organization Rept. Contract C or Grant G No. Sponsoring Organization Name and Addl'8S. Supplementary Note. PB Land use in the area is predominantly commercial and residential, with wetlands and woodlands located on site.

Current land use at the site is institutional, agricultural, abandoned land, and unoccupied residential. While the Town of Newington has a large number of private wells, the vast majority of Portsmouth residences are serviced by municipal water only.

From tothe site was used as a military installation by the U.

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Navy and Air Force. During its history, Pease AFB was the home of the th and the th Bombardment Wings, whose mission was to maintain a combat-ready force capable of long-range bombardment operations. The New Hampshire Air National Guard currently is stationed at the air field area and uses some of the facilities.

Over time, various quantities of fuels, oils, solvents, lubricants, and protective coatings were used at the base, and releases of contaminants into. Zone 1 See Attached Page Document Analysis a.

IdentilierslOpan-Ended T8rmS c. Availability Statement Security Class This Report Security Class This Page The acre LF-5 area was used from to as the base's primary landfill for domestic and industrial refuse. Types of waste disposed of in LF-S include waste oil and solvents, paints, paint strippers and thinners, pesticide containers, and empty cans.

A small drum staging area located at the southern entrance to the landfill was used for the temporary storage of drums encountered onsite, miscellaneous soil, and metals. In addition, the landfill received an estimated 20, gallons of sludge from the base industrial wastewater treatment plant, which may have contained TCE residues, grass clippings, wood chips, miscellaneous soil, and concrete rubble.

There are several surface water pathways that channel surface runoff away from the LF-5 area toward the Piscataqua River. Surface drainage from LF-2 and LF-4, other inactive landfills in the vicinity, as well as from a portion of LF-5, flows into ditches located on both sides of the Railway Ditch and leads to a swampy area.

Site contamination has severely affected surface waters and sediment due to overland flow and ground water discharge. The first stage revealed elevated contamination levels in soil and debris in the LF-5 area and, inthe second stage identified 5- and gallon drums in the LF-5 area as a potential threat to human health and the environment.IB Fuel Fabrication 2. Mound Laboratory 3. Army Facilities 5. Navy Facilities 5. As a result of the operation of these facilities, radionuclides are released into the atmosphere where they are dispersed into populated areas.

Radiation exposure to the public can then occur by breathing or swallowing these materials. For some radionuclides, people can also be exposed from direct radiation that is emitted from a cloud of the material passing overhead or from'direct radiation emitted when the radionuclides settle onto the ground. Section of the Clean Air Act Amendments ofPublic Lawdirected the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, to review all relevant information and determine whether emissions of radioactive pollutants into ambient air will cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health.

As a part of this review, the Agency has been assessing the public health impact resulting from emissions of radionuclides into air from a broad spectrum of major source categories. This report presents the initial, preliminary results of these assessments. For each facility or source category, the following are presented: - the amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere; - the radiation doses to individuals and population groups; - the lifetime risks to individuals; - the number of fatal cancers in the exposed population per year of facility operation.

Simultaneously with the development of this report, the Agency has been conducting more in-depth assessments which are expected to be published within the next six months.

These assessments will be based on further evaluations of emission levels, including the use of results from recent field measurement studies and computer programs which will incorporate more recently developed dose and health risk information and methodology. Source categories in this report have been divided into four groups: - facilities licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or States under an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; - facilities operated and regulated by the Department of Energy; - facilities emitting naturally occurring radionuclides; - other facilities emitting minor amounts of radionuclides.

Summaries of the emissions, dose rates, and risks associated with representative model facilities of source categories within these groups and with actual Department of Energy facilities are shown in tables S-l through S These data should be treated as preliminary estimates and used carefully with the recognition that they are highly uncertain. CO -C o. QJ s: oo. For each source category, the following information is presented: 1 A general description of the source category and its size.

The NRC and State licensed facilities, DOD facilities, and the facilities emitting naturally occurring radionuclides were grouped together into source categories on the basis of similarity of activities or operations and analyzed on a generic basis. The availability of emissions data varied widely from very detailed data for some source categories to little or no information for other source categories. Where possible the analyses presented are based on the use of reported emissions data obtained by measurement.

However, in the absence of measurement data, best estimates based on calculated or extrapolated values were used. The present status of information on emissions for the various source categories and the origin of the data used in the health impact analyses are discussed under the subsections entitled "Emissions of Radionuclides.

These assessments include estimates of the following radiation exposures and health risks: 1 Dose-equivalent rates and working level exposures to the most exposed individuals maximum individual ; 2 Collective dose-equivalent rates and working level exposures to population groups; 3 Lifetime risks to the maximum and average individuals in the exposed population; 4 The number of fatal cancers committed in the exposed population per year of facility operation.

The health risks estimated in this report are for fatal cancers only. The dose assessments for the NRC and State licensed facilities, and for sources emitting naturally occurring radioactive materials Chapters 2 and 4 were carried out on a generic basis using model facilities located on generic sites.

This methodology is described in detail in Appendix A. Dose and health risk methodology has evolved substantially in recent years. Some of these changes have not yet been incorporated in the methodology used in carrying out the assessments presented in this report. However, because of the preliminary nature of this report and the limited time available for its preparation, the use of the existing off the shelf methodology and DOE and DOD data were believed to be statisfactory for this effort.

Future health impact assessments of radioactive emissions under the Clean Air Act will use more recently developed methodology. The existing calculational models are being revised based on the latest information on transport, uptake and metabolic behavior of the various radionuclides. The cancer risk methodology will use "life-table" data which considers age-specific characteristics of somatic health effects.

The life-table analysis will consider relative and or absolute risk for each radionuclide and latency periods and risks plateaus for each type of health effect where possible. Definition of Terms Used in Health Impact Assessment Maximum Individual Dose equivalent rates and working level exposures are presented for what is titled the "maximum individual. For NRC and State licensed facilities and sources of natural radioactive materials, the maximum individual represents those individuals living closest to the source of emissions.Originally starting as a manufacturer of ham and sausages, the group has broadened its operations to all areas of the food industry including fresh meats, processed foods, seafood products, dairy products, health foods, and more.

To consistently provide safe products and services, NH Foods performs regular audits conforming to the international standards for quality assurance such as the SQF and HACCP throughout its business activities including the procurement of raw materials, production, manufacturing, and sales practices.

Inthe NH Foods Group ranked fifth among major global fresh meat companies based on net sales. For this reason, we have established its own vertical integration system for in-house handling of all processes from production through slaughtering, processing, distributing and marketing.

Our logistics network and unique ultra-low-temperature distribution system provides Japanese markets with fresh tunas directly from the farms to our customers. Level 9, Wisma Lay Hong, No. What is NH Foods Group? Commitment to quality To consistently provide safe products and services, NH Foods performs regular audits conforming to the international standards for quality assurance such as the SQF and HACCP throughout its business activities including the procurement of raw materials, production, manufacturing, and sales practices.

Related group companies. Our Strenghts.Performed the experiments: TC. Analyzed the data: TC. X inactivation—the transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome copy per female somatic cell—is universal among therian mammals, yet the choice of which X to silence exhibits considerable variation among species.

X inactivation strategies can range from strict paternally inherited X inactivation PXIwhich renders females haploid for all maternally inherited alleles, to unbiased random X inactivation RXIwhich equalizes expression of maternally and paternally inherited alleles in each female tissue.

However, the underlying evolutionary processes that might account for this observed diversity of X inactivation strategies remain unclear. We present a theoretical population genetic analysis of X inactivation evolution and specifically consider how conditions of dominance, linkage, recombination, and sex-differential selection each influence evolutionary trajectories of X inactivation. The results indicate that a single, critical interaction between allelic dominance and sex-differential selection can select for a broad and continuous range of X inactivation strategies, including unequal rates of inactivation between maternally and paternally inherited X chromosomes.

No document with DOI "10.1.1.106.1370"

RXI is favored over complete PXI as long as alleles deleterious to female fitness are sufficiently recessive, and the criteria for RXI evolution is considerably more restrictive when fitness variation is sexually antagonistic i. Evolutionary transitions from PXI to RXI also generally increase mean relative female fitness at the expense of decreased male fitness. These results provide a theoretical framework for predicting and interpreting the evolution of chromosome-wide expression of X-linked genes and lead to several useful predictions that could motivate future studies of allele-specific gene expression variation.

With the exception of its most primitive members, mammal species practice X inactivation, where one copy of each X chromosome pair is silenced in each cell of the female body. The particular copy of the X that is silenced nevertheless shows considerable variability among species, and the evolutionary causes for this variability remain unclear.

Here, we show that X inactivation strategies are likely to evolve in response to the sex-differential fitness properties of X-linked genetic variation. Genetic variation with similar effects on male and female fitness will generally favor the evolution of random X inactivation, potentially including preferential inactivation of the maternally inherited X chromosome. Paternally biased X inactivation patterns appear to be common in nature, which suggests that sexually antagonistic genetic variation might be an important factor underlying the evolution of X inactivation.

The theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of X inactivation strategies and generates several novel predictions that may soon be tested with modern genome sequencing technologies.

rxi, c, {nh{,u k.:!.1..?.~. del .l~ ..~:..l. ..

Mammalian females transcriptionally silence one of their two X chromosomes within each somatic cell — a process called X inactivation [1][2]. The basic phenomenon of X inactivation occurs in all therian non egg-laying mammals studied to date, yet the specific X chromosome silenced exhibits considerable diversity among species. At one extreme, typical of marsupials, the paternally inherited X is universally silenced and the maternally inherited X is ubiquitously expressed [3][4] ; hereafter referred to as paternal X inactivation or PXI.

In contrast, placental mammals practice random X inactivation RXI : each somatic cell may express either the maternally or the paternally inherited X the other X is silencedand female bodies are composed of a mosaic of cells that individually express one of the two X chromosome copies [5]. While RXI is generally thought to be unbiased — with each cell having an equal probability of expressing either of the two X chromosomes — recent data reveal quantitatively biased inactivation patterns in at least some placental mammal species, i.

Several marsupial studies similarly find evidence for partial expression of the paternally derived X, suggesting additional species-specificity of X inactivation rules reviewed in [2][8]. The selective processes that might account for this observed diversity remain unclear. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of RXI is that it might be favored if segregating deleterious mutations have recessive or partially recessive fitness effects [9] — [11] ; which, on average, they do [12] — [15].

rxi, c, {nh{,u k.:!.1..?.~. del .l~ ..~:..l. ..

The logic underlying this hypothesis is straightforward. Females that uniformly silence a particular copy of the X e. RXI generates an expression pattern that is more similar to diploidy, and can potentially mask the fitness costs of carrying deleterious alleles.

While the masking hypothesis for the evolutionary origins of RXI is plausible e. Models of a similar evolutionary scenario, the evolution of haploid versus diploid life cycles e. However, these models do not incorporate the unique properties of sex-differential selection and inheritance that govern X chromosome evolution [32]so it remains unclear whether their conclusions apply to the case of RXI.

Sex differences in selection — where the fitness effects of single mutations differ in magnitude or direction between males and females — likely influence large fractions of animal genomes [33] — [36]which can have two potential consequences for the evolutionary diversification of X inactivation strategies.

Stronger selection against deleterious alleles in males compared to females should decrease the average proportion of deleterious alleles carried on each paternally derived X e. Alleles benefiting males and costly to females experience higher probabilities of paternal transmission e.

Several models have examined how sexually antagonistic selection might favor the evolution genomic imprinting, which similarly involves the unequal expression of maternally and paternally inherited gene copies [40] — [44]. However, the effect of sexually antagonistic fitness variation on X inactivation evolution has yet to be addressed.

It is currently unclear how the population genetic parameters of dominance, sex-differential selection, and linkage and recombination might jointly influence the evolution of X inactivation strategies.Communities Search Forums Recent Activity.

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Sex-Differential Selection and the Evolution of X Inactivation Strategies

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What is NH Foods Group?

V, 4YFWJ8? S O4O'N! D AEUS? LI MH]5J. S57MY7 T,! X -3 06PS? R91 LE. O- M9. ZJO7 9! GS A,V?. ZO46 M! BWX6 M! A] MY GR? K,4 8!?X inactivation—the transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome copy per female somatic cell—is universal among therian mammals, yet the choice of which X to silence exhibits considerable variation among species. X inactivation strategies can range from strict paternally inherited X inactivation PXIwhich renders females haploid for all maternally inherited alleles, to unbiased random X inactivation RXIwhich equalizes expression of maternally and paternally inherited alleles in each female tissue.

However, the underlying evolutionary processes that might account for this observed diversity of X inactivation strategies remain unclear. We present a theoretical population genetic analysis of X inactivation evolution and specifically consider how conditions of dominance, linkage, recombination, and sex-differential selection each influence evolutionary trajectories of X inactivation.

The results indicate that a single, critical interaction between allelic dominance and sex-differential selection can select for a broad and continuous range of X inactivation strategies, including unequal rates of inactivation between maternally and paternally inherited X chromosomes.

RXI is favored over complete PXI as long as alleles deleterious to female fitness are sufficiently recessive, and the criteria for RXI evolution is considerably more restrictive when fitness variation is sexually antagonistic i.

Evolutionary transitions from PXI to RXI also generally increase mean relative female fitness at the expense of decreased male fitness. These results provide a theoretical framework for predicting and interpreting the evolution of chromosome-wide expression of X-linked genes and lead to several useful predictions that could motivate future studies of allele-specific gene expression variation. With the exception of its most primitive members, mammal species practice X inactivation, where one copy of each X chromosome pair is silenced in each cell of the female body.

The particular copy of the X that is silenced nevertheless shows considerable variability among species, and the evolutionary causes for this variability remain unclear. Here, we show that X inactivation strategies are likely to evolve in response to the sex-differential fitness properties of X-linked genetic variation. Genetic variation with similar effects on male and female fitness will generally favor the evolution of random X inactivation, potentially including preferential inactivation of the maternally inherited X chromosome.

Paternally biased X inactivation patterns appear to be common in nature, which suggests that sexually antagonistic genetic variation might be an important factor underlying the evolution of X inactivation. The theory provides a conceptual framework for understanding the evolution of X inactivation strategies and generates several novel predictions that may soon be tested with modern genome sequencing technologies.

PLoS Genet 9 4 : e This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Mammalian females transcriptionally silence one of their two X chromosomes within each somatic cell — a process called X inactivation [1][2]. The basic phenomenon of X inactivation occurs in all therian non egg-laying mammals studied to date, yet the specific X chromosome silenced exhibits considerable diversity among species.

At one extreme, typical of marsupials, the paternally inherited X is universally silenced and the maternally inherited X is ubiquitously expressed [3][4] ; hereafter referred to as paternal X inactivation or PXI.

In contrast, placental mammals practice random X inactivation RXI : each somatic cell may express either the maternally or the paternally inherited X the other X is silencedand female bodies are composed of a mosaic of cells that individually express one of the two X chromosome copies [5]. While RXI is generally thought to be unbiased — with each cell having an equal probability of expressing either of the two X chromosomes — recent data reveal quantitatively biased inactivation patterns in at least some placental mammal species, i.

Several marsupial studies similarly find evidence for partial expression of the paternally derived X, suggesting additional species-specificity of X inactivation rules reviewed in [2][8]. The selective processes that might account for this observed diversity remain unclear. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of RXI is that it might be favored if segregating deleterious mutations have recessive or partially recessive fitness effects [9] — [11] ; which, on average, they do [12] — [15].

The logic underlying this hypothesis is straightforward. Females that uniformly silence a particular copy of the X e. RXI generates an expression pattern that is more similar to diploidy, and can potentially mask the fitness costs of carrying deleterious alleles. While the masking hypothesis for the evolutionary origins of RXI is plausible e. Models of a similar evolutionary scenario, the evolution of haploid versus diploid life cycles e. However, these models do not incorporate the unique properties of sex-differential selection and inheritance that govern X chromosome evolution [32]so it remains unclear whether their conclusions apply to the case of RXI.

Sex differences in selection — where the fitness effects of single mutations differ in magnitude or direction between males and females — likely influence large fractions of animal genomes [33] — [36]which can have two potential consequences for the evolutionary diversification of X inactivation strategies. Stronger selection against deleterious alleles in males compared to females should decrease the average proportion of deleterious alleles carried on each paternally derived X e. Alleles benefiting males and costly to females experience higher probabilities of paternal transmission e.

Several models have examined how sexually antagonistic selection might favor the evolution genomic imprinting, which similarly involves the unequal expression of maternally and paternally inherited gene copies [40] — [44].


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