The high jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump unaided over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without dislodging it. In its modern most practiced format, a bar is placed between two standards with a crash mat for landing. In the modern era, athletes run towards the bar and use the Fosbury Flop method of jumping, leaping head first with their back to the bar. Since ancient times, competitors have introduced increasingly effective techniques to arrive at the current form.
The discipline is, alongside the pole vaultone of two vertical clearance events to feature on the Olympic athletics programme. The high jump was among the first events deemed acceptable for women, having been held at the Olympic Games. Javier Sotomayor Cuba is the current men's record holder with a jump of 2. Stefka Kostadinova Bulgaria has held the women's world record at 2. Jumpers must take off on one foot. A jump is considered a failure if the bar is dislodged by the action of the jumper whilst jumping or the jumper touches the ground or breaks the plane of the near edge of the bar before clearance.
The technique one uses for the jump must be almost flawless in order to have a chance of clearing a high bar. Competitors may begin jumping at any height announced by the chief judge, or may pass, at their own discretion.
Most competitions state that three consecutive missed jumps, at any height or combination of heights, will eliminate the jumper from competition. The victory goes to the jumper who clears the greatest height during the final.
Tie-breakers are used for any place in which scoring occurs. If two or more jumpers tie for one of these places, the tie-breakers are: 1 the fewest misses at the height at which the tie occurred; and 2 the fewest misses throughout the competition.
If the event remains tied for first place or a limited advancement position to a subsequent meetthe jumpers have a jump-off, beginning at the next greater height. Each jumper has one attempt.
The bar is then alternately lowered and raised until only one jumper succeeds at a given height. The first recorded high jump event took place in Scotland in the 19th century. Early jumpers used either an elaborate straight-on approach or a scissors technique. In later years, soon then after, the bar was approached diagonally, and the jumper threw first the inside leg and then the other over the bar in a scissoring motion.
Around the turn of the 20th century, techniques began to change, beginning with the Irish-American Michael Sweeney's Eastern cut-off. By taking off like the scissors and extending his spine and flattening out over the bar, Sweeney raised the world record to 1.
Another American, George Horinedeveloped an even more efficient technique, the Western roll. In this style, the bar again is approached on a diagonal, but the inner leg is used for the take-off, while the outer leg is thrust up to lead the body sideways over the bar. Horine increased the world standard to 2.High jump has been around since the very beginning of the Olympics, and has evolved dramatically over the course of the last years or so.
It is crazy to think that a simple jump over a bar can have so many variations. The standing jump is one of the most primitive forms of the high jump. Before any of the following techniques, this method was the staple method. The athlete would stand sideways right next to the high bar, and jump standing straight up, only veering slightly sideways and landing upright.
For the moment they were in the air and crossing the high bar, there was a slight scissor motion to add an extra few inches. The goal was to essentially create as little overall distance between the start and finish as possible. The idea behind this was that if there was less distance traveled than there must be less force required to move, but this is not the case.
This strategy was later abandoned for good reason. There is literally no running momentum, which eliminates all extra force allowing the jumper to actually generate any real height. As a result, the height achieved was nothing spectacular. This is why a broad jump is much harder than a running long jump.
To add to this, the center of gravity is also very high, which means the athlete had to jump higher and get less height out of it. Because of the upright stature, the distance from the pelvis to the center of gravity is all wasted jump height. The hurdle came after the standing jump and quickly gained some steam.
Athletes quickly saw the advantages of using a slight hurdle motion as oppose to simply standing. The hurdle was now the norm.
The hurdle technique was named because of its similarity to the hurdles in track because of the straight-on nature of it. While still simple, it proved more effective than the standing jump because of the added affect of running momentum, allowing for greater height with less effort. The technique is performed as one does a hurdle, with the run being a straight approach, with one leg raising up to the bar, and quickly raising the other one over the bar once the first has cleared.
This technique is actually better than it sounds because with the single leg being raised, you can go higher forwards than sideways. Going sideways you can only raise the leg as high as the hip, but forwards you can raise the leg higher and lean forward to lower the center of gravity.
Soon after, the running pattern was altered to be slightly sideways, which it still is today, which allowed for greater leaning abilities. Once leaning was found to be an effective tool in high jump, another method soon followed. The scissor was the first real attempt to lower the center of gravity of the athlete. This method, or variations of it would become the norm for many decades. This was also when the first high jumpers experimented with a curved approach, as oppose to a straight line.
The scissor has some similar parallels to the modern high jump technique, as the approach is slightly skewed, the jumper is not straight upright, and the shape of the legs is manipulated to increase height. Originally, there was a complete reliance on vertical jump height, but now the methods were allowing for some creativity.
The scissor involved a skewed J shape approach, where the jumper would hurdle the bar like normal, but while going over the athlete would do a sciccor kick with their legs, while twisting the back slightly to raise the hips. Scissor kicking is a pretty good technique even for modern jumpers, especially beginners.
The concept is simpler to grasp than the modern day flop, while still being able to grant some good height. The Eastern Cutoff was the next evolution in high jump technique.
This method was an even more efficient version of the classic scissor technique. Think of this one as essentially the scissor technique, only with the back being quickly straightened out while clearing the bar.
This also grants the advantage of the athlete still being able to land on their feet, while at the same time still doing a sideways layout, if you will, over the bar.The straddle technique was the dominant style in the high jump before the development of the Fosbury Flop. It is a successor of the Western roll with which it is sometimes confused. Unlike the scissors or flop style of jump, where the jumper approaches the bar so as to take off from the outer foot, the straddle jumper approaches from the opposite side, so as to take off from the inner foot.
In this respect the straddle resembles the western roll. However, in the western roll the jumper's side or back faces the bar; in the straddle the jumper crosses the bar face down, with legs straddling it. With this clearance position, the straddle has a mechanical advantage over the western roll, since it is possible to clear a bar that is higher relative to the jumper's center of mass. In simple terms, the western roll jumper has to raise the width of the body above the bar; the straddle jumper has only to get the thickness of the body above it.
There are two variants of the straddle: the parallel straddle and a more diving version. With the parallel straddle, the lead leg is kicked high and straight, and head and trunk pass the bar at the same time. Valeriy Brumel gold in dove a little bit, his head going over the bar before his trunk. Probably the most extreme exponent of the dive straddle was Bob Avant, who cleared 7 ft.
Avant's technique was close to a pure dive, with just a small knee lift on his lead leg. The last world record jump with the straddle technique was Vladimir Yashchenko 's 2. That was improved upon in by a flopper, Jacek Wszola of Poland.
All of the subsequent record holders have used the Fosbury Flopwhich Dick Fosbury used in his 2. There is some debate over which of the two techniques is more efficient in clearing of the bar. Although both have advantages and disadvantages, the Fosbury flop is considered by many easier to learn, especially for younger jumpers, and thus has become the dominant technique.
Inan American high jumper Steve Harkins brought back the straddle style in the Master's division to break the Master's World Record and then went on to win the World's, beating a 'flopper' at the World Championships in Miyazaki Japan. Harkins used the 'head down first' style as did Brumel.
National Championships in Bozeman, Montana; in MarchHarkins was the highest jumper ever in the Master's to have used the straddle style. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 October Archived from the original on 17 April High jump techniques. Categories : High jump Sport of athletics terminology. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.
Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.But that payoff moment is the result of a longer, more complex process. The high jump combines techniques used in running and hurdling, as well as jumping events. At the same time, the approach run must be controlled — as in the hurdles — by employing the same stride pattern on each jump, to complete the approach at the proper takeoff spot.
Generally, right-handed jumpers begin by standing about 10 strides back from the right standard, plus five strides to the right. A standard step approach begins by pushing off with the takeoff foot. Continue to accelerate while running in a straight line until the fifth step, which should land on your second checkmark.
Illustrated High Jump Technique
Prior to hitting the mark, turn your non-takeoff foot slightly to the middle of the track, pointing the toe in the direction of the nearest standard, to initiate the curve toward the bar. At the same time, lean away from the bar by flexing at the ankles. Continue to accelerate while maintaining the arc toward the bar, with each step falling in front of the previous step. Continue to lean away from the bar. Keep your head up, body erect and focus your vision above the bar, toward the far standard.
On your final two steps, your feet should land flat on the ground. Plant the takeoff foot which will be farthest from the bar in front of you, with the toe pointing toward the far standard, and drive your other leg and both arms straight up not across your bodywhile keeping them close to your body.
The thigh on the non-takeoff leg should be roughly parallel to the ground while your arms punch up to head level. Look down on the bar with your chin tight to your chest. Leave the free leg up as the takeoff leg rises into a similar position.
Maintain your lean away from the bar and jump up, allowing your momentum to carry you over the bar. Alternatively, you can take off while only pumping your outside arm. Pumping both arms straight up helps keep your body moving straight up. The takeoff leg should continue toward the bar as your other leg, shoulders, and hips rotate until your back is to the bar.
Your heels should be close to your backside with your knees apart. The head, obviously, will clear the bar first. Mike Rosenbaum. Mike Rosenbaum is an award-winning sports writer covering various sports and events for more than 15 years. Facebook Facebook. Updated October 27, From beginners to advanced high jumpers, the way you start your approach will determine how well you go over the bar. From a physics standpoint, it allows you to approach the bar with more speed and clear the bar while keeping your center of gravity at or below the bar — which is much more efficient.
This was a genuine revolution in high jump technique. What he instinctively knew was that the approach does all the work and if done right, physics will take care of your rotation over the bar.
Everything that happens in the approach is setting up the body to be in the correct position at the point of takeoff. Once you get the approach right, the probability of making higher heights skyrockets! The purpose of this article is to help you develop consistency in your approach from start to takeoff.
Remember, when it comes to a successful jump, the approach does all the heavy lifting! A high jump approach follows a basic J-style turn that creates centrifugal force to propel the athlete around the curve of the J and up over the bar. The approach can vary from 8 — 12 steps. Generally speaking, women run steps and men run Those steps are divided, running half on the straight and half on the J-curve, including the penultimate and takeoff steps.
To accelerate well in the approach, proper posture is vital.
7 Classic High Jump Styles (And How To Do Them!)
Shoulders back, hips up, active arms and graceful running all contribute to a successful launch. High jump approach starting styles can vary from athlete to athlete but ultimately; the most successful jumpers will remain consistent in their approach. To find what works best for you, you want to identify a style that feels most comfortable and sets you up for proper posture. If your posture is wrong at the start, your entire approach will be off. STEP 1 : Most athletes will take their first step with the same leg they takeoff with.
This is called the drive phase. Building speed is critical to height as you approach the bar. Your movement should be deliberate, dynamic and graceful. STEPS : You should be moving into an upright running posture by the third step and you should continue to accelerate in a straight line until the mid-point.
The mechanics of the first half of your steps should be consistent with a normal acceleration pattern and upright sprinting mechanics. STEP 5 : This is the step where the curve is initiated and you should begin to travel outside of the forward straight line of movement.
This is where many great jumps are lost. The goal is to run the curve with the greatest amount of controllable horizontal velocity with as much inward lean as possible to still be able to execute a safe jump.
The transition to the turn should be a combination of straight ahead running and single track running while continuing to accelerate. The first step into the curve should be slightly inside of your hip with the foot turned just slightly towards the mat. A common mistake is to step too far outside of the curve, making the turn too wide.
This can cause multiple errors in your jump, such as improper takeoff angle. Use the slider to see an example of incorrect and correct foot path for transitioning and initiating the curve.
As you approach the takeoff and penultimate step, your body should be leaned away from the bar. The J curve allows you to lean away from the bar, creating the proper launch angle to clear it. STEP 9 : The takeoff and penultimate steps must also be on the curve. In this step the center of mass is lowered with minimal deceleration.
This is done by continuing to run the curve correctly. STEP 10 : The approach should result in a position of inward lean at the takeoff point.Learning various techniques is not a difficult task at all, rather implementing them in your training is quite difficult. A learner should have right approach and consistency to harvest those techniques. One of the good ways to do this is by doing Approach Runs. This is something familiar to high jump only but only with the difference that the jumper will not jump at the end.
A approach runs before actual practise is important but to have a good result you can increase it according to your capacity. A running approach is said to be ideally fit for this. That means the athlete will run 6 steps in straight line and remaining 4 steps in curvature path before take-off. As in approach runs, the athlete do not need to jump over, hence steps get eventually slow during the end of the run.
This jump is performed in between the normal approach and layouts. It is nothing but a transitional drill. It includes the combination of both normal approach and take-off. The basic aim behind this drill is to make the athlete stand on his lead feet after getting jumped over the bar. Consider the below diagram for clear understanding. In this type of approach, the jumper just attacks the bar. No need to worry about the technical aspect of the jump.
Take-off positions related to vertical sections are clearly emphasised over here. With regular practise, once the athlete achieves mastery over that particular level of height, the level of the bar can be increased much further.
High Jump Technique
Through the practise of this, the jumper gets used to his position over the bar. This is a two-fold exercise and it is not necessary that you will use a higher bar for practise. A short height bar that an athlete can jump over very easily would be an idle fit for this.
First his focus should be not to let his body parts touch the bar and secondly to impact a strong kick that will make his lower body successfully clear the bar.
Suddenly practising the full jump approach takes a lot of time and such high speed take-off causes fatigue and injury most of the times. Instead of this the jumper should go for a short jump approach. Because in short jump approach the athlete can expertise more on certain techniques and can practise it more frequently. Two styles of short term approach are explained below.
Mark the starting point on the ground such that the jumper will be four step out from the bar on their full approach.
As the athlete will use only four steps to clear the bar so his speed and acceleration will increase two-fold. This is an actual practise to make an athlete able to compete in real competition. The only confidence gaining key in a meet time situation in a full approach is to practise this full jump approach.
The athlete should concentrate upon how to accelerate his speed from slow to high and pick up a lightning fast speed at the end. Clearance of bar and take-off techniques should be practised along with it to harvest the most during the competition. High Jump - Various Techniques Advertisements. Previous Page.
High Jump - Various Techniques
Next Page. Previous Page Print Page. Dashboard Logout.If you are new to our service and wager methodologies, we have developed several methods of machine learning, AI analytics, and combinatorial algorithms that have provided significant value and have augmented total rate of returns in all sports.
The first set of Combinatorial Algorithms has been applied to the NFL and have no doubt helped propel our NFL plays to an amazing 36-15 ATS record in 2017. So, do yourself a big favor and consider getting on board with a cost saving sports subscription and never miss a play. I'm laying the points with the NY Knicks on Saturday.
Chicago snapped their 10-game losing streak with a 119-111 OT win last night in Charlotte. Give the Bulls credit for finding their offense, but it was just their 4th win in 24 games this season and we don't suspect a winning streak is about to begin. They're 0-4 ATS both off a SU win and when playing without rest between games. The Knicks whipped Memphis last time out and did so without Tim Hardaway, who's out with a leg injury.
His loss is baked into this number as far as we're concerned. We have a Knicks' team that's covered seven of their last nine against teams with a losing record, while covering five in a row in this series. I'm laying the points with the Knicks on Saturday. All my picks are based on interpretation of statistics, context and personal judgement. Each selection is primarily based on available value for long-term profits and not short priced easy favourites.
Ultimately, I use my own analysis in combination with intelligent based software. Wazzu's defense has steadily gotten worse as the season goes along. They allowed 91 to Idaho on the road and 81 to UC Davis as well. Robert Franks and Malachi Flynn are averaging over 36 points per game combined. UTEP is feeling good after a 88-76 home win over New Mexico last time out. They will be once again without Matt Wilms in the middle.
That will make the Miners defense much worse considering he's their enforcer type. Extra pressure now on Keith Frazier and Omega Harris. UTEP has gone over in 14 of their last 21 games when the total is 140 to 149. This game features the 13-11 Sixers and the 18-8 Cavs.An athlete uses physics to shatter world records - Asaf Bar-Yosef
This game will be easy pickings as the Sixers will rest their star Joel Embid and this line just is too low. Cavs lost outrite last night at the Pacers and will not be to happy going into this one. In the last nine years, this situation is sensational 23-3.
The 7-5 Baltimore Ravens are in Pittsburgh to take on the 10-2 Steelers and for a number of different reasons, I think this on favors the visitors. Baltimore has won three straight.
Pittsburgh enters off a come-from-behind 23-20 win over Cincinnati on Monday night. Note that this is a revenge game for the Ravens after they fell 26-9 to the Steelers in the first meeting back on October 1st. Denver, which has lost eight in a row after a 3-1 start enters into this game in a shambles.
HC Vance Joseph's first year as head coach hasn't gone as planned, and the entire team looks to be on the verge of mutiny. Meanwhile, the Jets behind veteran quarterback Josh McCown are doing well in what was supposed to be a rebuilding season.
The experienced QB has 18 touchdown passes and only eight interceptions while playing every snap this season. Of the Jets' seven losses the jets have suffered during this campaign, only one has been by double digits, and they've had a fourth-quarter lead in three others and are a very under rated squad.
I'm betting the NFL offensive player of the week (McCown) and a cohesive blue collar group will once again be the catalyst behind a Jets victory here today. DENVER is 0-8 ATS in all games where the total is between 35.